Up to 87% of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experience chronic sequelae following infection. The long-term impact of COVID-19 infection on kidney function is largely unknown at this point in the COVID-19 pandemic. In this review, we highlight the current understanding of the pathophysiology of COVID-19-associated kidney injury and the impact COVID-19 may have on long-term kidney function. COVID-19-induced acute kidney injury may lead to tubular injury, endothelial injury, and glomerular injury. We highlight histopathologic correlates from large kidney biopsy and autopsy series. By conducting a comprehensive review of published literature to date, we summarize the rates of recovery from COVID-19-associated-AKI. Finally, we discuss how certain genetic differences, including APOL1 risk alleles (a risk factor for collapsing glomerulopathy), coupled with systemic healthcare disparities, may lead to a disproportionate burden of post-COVID-19-kidney function decline among racial and ethnic minority groups. We highlight the need for prospective studies to determine the true incidence of chronic kidney disease burden after COVID-19.
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